Hertzberg for his work confirmed the experiments of Nageli. He watched on solid nutrient media inoculated with bacteria, a drop of colloidal silver around the sterile area without microbial growth, the presence of which the researcher explained the influence of high concentrations of silver (ie, the usual effect of heavy metals) in its central part and oligodynamic action of silver at the edges of the sterile zone .
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This explanation is quite consistent with the theory of Nageli. Vincent, by comparing the activity of certain metals, found that the strongest effect on the bacterium has a silver, then copper and gold.
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Thus, the diphtheria bacillus was dying on a silver plate in three days, on copper - six days later, on gold - eight. Staphylococcus died on silver in two days, on copper - three for gold - in nine days.
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Typhoid bacillus on silver and copper, dying after 18 h, and the gold - six or seven days. In the 20s of XX century. proposed several theories to explain the effect of silver and copper on bacteria. However, only the ionic theory, which considers the bactericidal effect (the ability to destroy bacteria) as a result of the transition metal ions and the subsequent actions of these ions to bacteria retained its value.
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According to this theory, the concentration of silver ions in solution to determine the effect of bactericidal effect, ie, factors that increase the solubility of the metal should increase and the activity of the solution. In 1907 Russian scientist G. Serikov experimentally found that the chemically pure metallic silver low bactericidal. Researchers have shown that the effect of destroying the bacteria depends on the formation of silver on the surface of the metal with his own salts and oxides.
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These compounds dissolve in water, give a particular concentration of silver ions, which is linked to bactericidal activity. Alexandrov and Ermolaev in his experiments placed a plate of metallic silver in a petri dish on agar, previously seeded Escherichia coli (a bacterium coli). If the surface of silver has not been laundered by the oxide film and the silver salt, around the plate after 48 h showed no bacterial growth. On agar was clearly visible in the sterile zone of 2-3 mm. In the case where the same plate thoroughly washed with an aqueous solution of ammonia around the sterile zone is not formed.